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Genitalia: Japanese English Lesson
|In his classic--and still standard--work on human sexual anatomy, Dickinson (1949) lamented the paucity of research on normal genital morphometrics Generally, morphometrics (from the Greek: "morph," meaning shape or form, and "metron”, meaning measurement) comprises methods of extracting measurements from shapes. In most cases applied to biological topics in the widest sense. , a factor that influenced production of composite or "basic," rather than "normal" (p. 42), forms for male and female genitalia. Genital morphometric norms remain in the domain of general statements offered with little substantiation. Most exceptions are studies of males, but there has been an embargo on the publication of the underlying statistics. For example, some critical statistics of Schonfeld and Beebe's (1942, classic (and still standard) study on penile penile /pe·nile/ (pe´nil) of or pertaining to the penis.|| |
Above: Occasionally there are some odd oversights--
Bart blowing bubbles is blurred, but Ralph in an opium den smoking a pipe is not.
Above: Smoking monkeys are also blurred
| Earlier: Smoking on Thai TV - September 29, 2002 |
2Bangkok.com was once informed that UBC had an understanding with the authorities so that UBC would not have to blur out images of smoking. They would instead put a Thai-language warning across the bottom of the screen when people smoke. They did this for awhile, but in the last few months it appears they have gone back to the original, government- dictated method of blurring the screen when people smoke.
The blurring follows the cigarette as it moves around the screen, but often they miss (as you can see by the frame below).
Another example was a documentary about Dino De Laurentis. He always has a cigar in his mouth and every time his face was shown it was blurred. Here's an article about Thailand's ban on smoking on television.
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Of or relating to the penis.
penileof or pertaining to the penis. growth and size norms from birth to maturity were distributed privately by Schonfeld; the data reached publication 40 years later in an appendix to the work of other researchers (Money, Lehne, & Pierre-Jerome. 1984). Similarly, the self-reported penile data from the original Kinsey study remained unpublished until 1979 (Gebhard & Johnson, 1979). Masters and Johnson Masters and Johnson, pioneering research team in the field of human sexuality, consisting of the gynecologistWilliam HowReverse video (or invert video or inverse video) is a computer display technique wherein the background and text colour values are swapped, like this. ell Masters, 1915–2001, b. Cleveland, and the psychologist Virginia Eshelman Johnson, 1925–, b.
..... Click the link for more information. (1966) published summary penile data but, fearing untoward consequences, refused to divulge the full statistics on their male sample (Petersen, 1979). Even a recent medical book devoted exclusively to the penis (Hashmat & Das, 1993) contains no information on normal penile variation. Texts on female genitalia are less rare. Indeed, female genitalia are overrepresented o·ver·rep·re·sent·ed
Represented in excessive or disproportionately large numbers: "Some groups, and most notably some races, may be overrepresented and others may be underrepresented" in reproductive chapters of general anatomy general anatomy
The study of the structure and composition of the body as well as of its tissues and fluids. and physical diagnosis texts, a strong contrast to the underrepresentation of female images in nonreproductive chapters (Mendelsohn, Nieman, Isaacs, Lee, & Levinson, 1994). This greater willingness to depict female genitalia in the medical realm (as in popular culture) does not translate into more numerous studies of female morphometric variation. There are precious few data to compare with Kasai's study of Japanese females. The Masters and Johnson (1966) data sets are smaller, the emphasis is on physiological responses, and illustrations are primarily schematic drawings. Stereoscopic stereoscopic /ster·eo·scop·ic/ (ster?e-o-skop´ik) having the effect of a stereoscope; giving objects a solid or three-dimensional appearance.
1. views, a user-unfriendly format, of normal clitoralyndrome as a result of increased androgens produced by a hyperplastic or neoplastic adrenal cortex. variation appeared in a collection of sociological and medical essays on that organ (Lowry & Lowry, 1976). Feminists have sought to fill the gaps in the study of female genitalia (Chalker, 1996). Starting in the 1970s, Betty Dodson (1987) created and toured with a slide show of vulva vulva /vul·va/ (vul´vah) [L.] the external genital organs of the female, including the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, and vestibule of the vagina. , forms: and Joani Blank (1993) published a fine but small collection of photographs of the vulva. These self help guides for women, although showing the wide variety of form, have no statistical representation. It is hardly news to readers of this journal that over the decades the most frequent and per during question from patients and the populace at large is some variant of "Are my g enitals normal"'" This clamor for information has been answered by the scientific community with lots of reassurance but an astounding a·stound
tr.v. a·stound·ed, a·stound·ing, a·stounds
To astonish and bewilder. See Synonyms at surprise.
[From Middle English astoned, past participle of astonen, silence on authoritative investigation. The growing willingness to confront openly the problem of child sexual abuse Child sexual abuse is an umbrella term describing criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor o r exploits a minor for the purpose of sexual gratification.
..... Click the link for more information. has prodded the publication of photographic and statistical studies of variation in abused and nonabused immature genitalia (Berkowitz, 1992; Giardino, Finkel, Giardino, Seidl, & Ludwig, 1992; Heger & Emans, 1992), but adult variation remains veiled. Dr Kam has redressed this failure for Japanese women; in the process, he provides a base for future comparative study, for questions of ethnic/racial variation in genitalia have long percolated in scientific and lay Communities. The language of publication, Japanese, constrains the accessibility of this work to a wide audience. However, those with a modicum of Japanese (or Chinese), or perhaps even none at all, will find Kasai's text somewhat accessible. Half the total pages are dedicated to color (the majority) and black-and-white photographs; page headings in both Japanese and English identify the anatomic al parts illustrated. English is also used for chapter headings and subheadings. Throughout the text Kasai liberally uses English medical terminology (e.g., labia minora, glans glans (glanz) pl. glan´des [L.] a small, rounded mass or glandlike body.
glans clito´ridis , glans of clitoris erectile tissue on the free end of the clitoris. clitoris clitoris /clit·o·ris/ (klit´ah-ris) the small, elongated, erectile body in the female, situated at the anterior angle of the rima pudendi and homologous with the penis in the male.
n. , plateau and excitement phase), even though there are Japanese equivalents. Unfortunate ly, English was not used in the headings of the numerous statistical tables; still, with a little creative deciphering, tables of interest are identifiable, thus reducing demands on a translator. Kasai includes chapters on the gluteal
glutealpertaining to the buttocks. region and anus, changes in external genitalia during sexual responses, labia minora and majora, the clitoris, pubes
n. pl. pubes
1. , and the introitus. Kasai sought correlation on a number of parameters. Although not strictly within his topical purview, the lack of data on the vagina is made all the more regrettable by the completeness of analysis of his chosen focus. Kasai clearly states, and illustrates with diagrams, his standards of measurement and classification schemes, thus enabling comparative study and replication. The bibliography has 64 references, mostly in Japanese, with a few German and English sources as well (Japan and Germany have longer and more extensive historical records of genital morphometric research). An elaboration of why the study was undertaken, or a historical overview of genital research in Japan, is od dly lac king. Although in a strict sense Kasai's sample may not be statistically representative of the Japanese population, it is the largest sample by far of any population's genital variance. The 8,330 females ranged in age from 15 to 46 years old, with normal endocrine values and regular menstrual cycles. Participants were enrolled at random in clinics and elsewhere: trial analysis at the stages of 2,000, 3,000, and 5,000 participants revealed similar statistical tendencies. Thus, it seems likely that had Kasai been able to capture an ideal random sample, the findings would differ little. That he was able to conduct and publish this work is ironic and remarkable: Japan's censors are diligent in blacking out the pubic area both in pornography and studies of classic erotic arts. To get distribution approval, Kasai and the publisher had to apply to the national police for an exemption on medical grounds. Perhaps others, with similar or lesser obstacles in t heir path, will be encouraged to follow Kasai in lifting the veil of secrecy cloaking genital variation. References
Bart Simpson and the Kader fire commemoration - May 21, 2005
Asiper writes: The photo above is from May 10 - Safety day. Workers, labour organizations, and NGOs gather in front of the Ministry Labour to commemorate of 12th anniversary of the Kader fire. On the left is a model of the Kader memorial statue. Next are photos of Kader victims and then a wreath made of dolls produced at the factory whi
ch reads "12nd anniversary of Kader fire." On the right is a large Bart SImpson effigy that reads "How many people will die, how many people will have disabilities so we will get the Institute of Occupational Health Safety and Environment at the workplace?" And Thaksin's name is at the bottom.
[An Institute of Occupational Health Safety and Environment is supposed to be set up, but labour organizations oppose government attempts to make it a state enterprise and not an independent organization.]
It was the height of the Simpsons craze and the factory was producing Simpsons toys. After the fire, labor activists collected discarded toys and a melted Bart became a symbol of the tragedy.
Malaysian labor activist Tian Chua writes: ...The bodies of Bart Simpson scattered all over the ground - some half burned, some without heads or limbs, some half completed. There were many other toys too. But the bright yellow color of the Simpsons stood up most vividly on the black ashes. Kader was one of the largest toy manufacturers in Asia. It was also a typical multinational company which moved around for cheap labour. Kader was jointly owned by Thai and Hong Kong capitalists. It mainly produced toys for European & American markets. The doll of the Simpsons was the latest hot item for kids that year.
Above: The Thai Labor Museum salvaged some of the toys from the r
|The toy industry is a sector which pr oduces fun and joy. Toys bring laughter to children and parents. However, the tragedy of Kader fire revealed the sorrows and suffering behind toy manufacturing. Kader made us aware that workers use their sweat, tear and blood to exchange happines s for children around the world... (Tian Chua wrote this from prison. He has been detained in a Malaysian prison since April 10, 2001 without charge for attempting to organize Malaysian workers without government permission.) The Asian Network for the Rights of Occupational Accident Victims (Anroav.org) has a special issue of their newsletter on the 10th anniversary of the tragedy that can be downloaded here. BTW: 1993 was not a good year for industrial accidents in Asia. In June, a cage elevator in Hong Kong fell and killed 12 workers and in November the Zhili Toy Factory fire broke out in Shenzhen, China. It led to 87 deaths.|
| Right: Poster lamenting the lack of a Occupational Health and Safety Authority in Thailand. (Photo: 2Bangkok.com) Kader fire anniversary - May 10, 2003 |
Today is the 10th anniversary of the Kader fire disaster. There will be demonstrations in front of the former factory site in Nakhon Pratom province and stones for a memorial will be laid. On Sunday, May 11, seminars on the disaster will be held in the Tubtim Room at the Royal Hotel (across from Sanam Luang).
We have been informed that the Labour Minister has agreed to attend and open the ceremonies at the Kader factory site this morning.
The Real Tragedy of the Kader Factory Fire - The Irrawaddy, May 9, 2003
Right: Detail of a Kader fire remembrance t-shirt (Photo: 2Bangkok.com)
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